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Modernism was not conceived as a style but a loose collection of ideas. It was a term that covered a range of movements in art, architecture, design and literature, which largely rejected the styles that came before it.
From this perspective, modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was ‘holding back’ progress, and replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end. Others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection.
There are four major literary movements applicable to the study of modern short fiction: Romanticism , Realism , Naturalism , and Modernism . … Romanticism flourished from the early to the mid-nineteenth century, partly as a reaction to the rationalism and empiricism of the previous age (the Enlightenment).
In addition to the segments of the discourse of modernity and modernization that have been classified, a structure of essential features of modern society is revealed comprising 1) universality (invariance) of social development; 2) civilization variability and uniqueness of cultural programs; 3) emancipation trend and …
The following are some of the dominant characteristics of the modern-era.
More specifically, modernity was associated with individual subjectivity, scientific explanation and rationalization, a decline in emphasis on religious worldviews, the emergence of bureaucracy, rapid urbanization, the rise of nation-states, and accelerated financial exchange and communication.