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What is cradle to grave design?

Cradle-to-grave is: ‘A boundary condition associated with embodied carbon, carbon footprint and LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) studies. A cradle-to-grave assessment can help develop a holistic view of a project and its embodied energy, but it can be difficult to estimate accurately. …

What are the 5 stages of LCA?

We will talk about different concepts of the product lifecycle in just a moment, but generally speaking, the product lifecycle consists of five phases: Raw Material Extraction. Manufacturing & Processing. Transportation.

What is the second stage of LCA?

Stage 2: In this step, inventory analysis gives a description of material and energy flows within the product system and especially its interaction with environment, consumed raw materials, and emissions to the environment. All important processes and subsidiary energy and material flows are described later.

What goes through a life cycle?

A life cycle is a series of stages a living thing goes through during its life. … It is helpful to use diagrams to show the stages, which often include starting as a seed, egg, or live birth, then growing up and reproducing. Life cycles repeat again and again.

What is material life cycle?

The major stages in a material’s lifecycle are raw material acquisition, materials manufacture, production, use/reuse/maintenance, and waste management.By looking at a product’s entire life cycle—from materials extraction to end-of-life management—we can find new opportunities to reduce environmental impacts, conserve …

What are the problems with life cycle assessments?

These include challenges like ‘allocation’, ‘uncertainty‘ or ‘biodiversity‘, as well as issues like ‘littering’, ‘animal well-being’ or ‘positive impacts’ which are not covered as often in the existing LCA literature.

What is a life cycle assessment GCSE?

A lifecycle assessment or LCA is a ‘cradle to grave’ analysis of the impact of a manufactured product on the environment . There are many detailed stages but the main ones are: extracting and processing the raw materials needed. manufacturing the product and its packaging. using the product during its lifetime.

What is iso14040?

The ISO 14040 series standards, Life Cycle Assessment, address quantitative assessment methods for the assessment of the environmental aspects of a product or service in its entire life cycle stages. ISO 14040 is an overarching standard encompassing all four phases of LCA.

What name is given to water that is safe to drink?

Water that is safe for humans to drink is called potable water. Potable water is not pure water because it almost always contains dissolved impurities.

What is the process of Phytomining?

Phytomining involves growing plants on top of low grade ores. The plants absorb copper ions through their roots The plants are then burnt to ashes containing copper ions. These ions are leached from the ash using sulfuric acid. Scrap iron can then be used to displace the copper from the leachate.

Why can iron be used to get copper from copper sulfate?

Processing the metal compounds Since iron is cheaper than copper, the use of scrap iron is a cost-effective way to produce copper from the leachate. Alternatively, the copper compounds can be dissolved and the solution electrolysed to produce copper metal.